Newspapers and Magazines History
The first supplement of which there is evidence is the one produced and distributed by the San Francisco Chronicle in 1869, which had a marked literary line and was born with the objective of giving place to great firms and writers who collaborated in a format different from that of the daily newspaper. In the following decades, other North American newspapers began the « supplementary » publication on Sundays of a booklet of diverse content that mixed information, analysis, entertainment and, as a characteristic to highlight, the introduction of images, particularly introduced by the Chicago Inter Orea and The New York Times.
The 19th century meant for the press considerable technical advances and its transformation into a mass product, which meant the search of publishing companies to capture new audiences. Richard Keeble, states that from 1870 onwards there was a significant increase in the number of newspapers, as well as in the number of readers, which brought with it an increase in production costs and, of course, a competition for the largest number of advertisers to cover these costs. While in the first half of the 19th century the main printed newspapers did not exceed thousands of copies, by the end of the century hundreds of thousands were being printed.
It can be said that the birth of supplements was due to technical, economic and cultural reasons. On the one hand, in 1885 the linotype was invented by Ottmar Mergenthales, which made it possible to mechanize the process of composing texts for printing. This allowed for accelerated printing which, together with the railroad, telegraph and telephone, achieved mass distribution of the press. In this context, the press went from purely local gazettes or newspapers to an acceleration in the pace of information. On the other hand, the massive use of the press was limited by its high price, a situation that could be overcome thanks to the economic prosperity of the end of the 19th century, the increase in commercial relations and the development of the advertising world. Another aspect, no less decisive, was the increase in literacy in certain social sectors that allowed the press to expand its audience.
Each of these moments caused the press to diversify and the newspaper models preceding the second half of the 19th century to be redefined. That is to say, those opinion and partisan newspapers did not represent a major attraction for advertising, which then played a fundamental role as an economic resource and as a key factor for lowering printing prices. At the time, the sales success of newspapers was linked to information, cross-class approaches and a certain political independence. Investors in the press recognized that there were more economic benefits to the extent that purely political approaches were abandoned in favor of commercial, news and general interest contents.
Thus, commercial and financial information, sports and the world of culture began to occupy a central place in the newspapers. Likewise, the editors of several newspapers recognized promotions and contests as dissemination strategies to reach emerging audiences. In this sense, Sunday supplements appear in the history of journalism as a strategy to reach an emerging public within the growing middle classes eager for information and entertainment.
By the 1890s, in New York, William Randolph Hearts of the New York Journal and Joseph Pulitzer of the New York World, in the midst of commercial competition, conceived the idea of introducing features, illustrations, entertainment and fiction as a formula that would attract the attention of advertisers. According to Janice Hume, the first Sunday magazines were closely linked to the takeoff of department stores that sought to bring their products to readers.
On the other hand, in 1896, Morril Goddard launched the American Sunday Magazine supplement, which was the first business initiative not belonging to a newspaper, which sought to cover this editorial segment and offer its product in magazine format to the Sunday editions of newspapers. This would be the precedent of the USA Weekend magazine that has survived to the present day and that at the beginning of the 21st century reached a circulation of more than 22 million copies distributed in more than 600 local newspapers in the United States. The editor of the magazine claimed that unlike the perishability of a newspaper of the previous day, The American Weekly could last for weeks without losing interest, which shows the trait of supplements to raise issues such that they could transcend the perishability of newspapers.
Put another way, what differentiated the Sunday supplements from the daily newspapers was the prudential distance they kept with respect to current events, trying not to lose their relevance due to the distance between their long production processes in the printing press and their arrival in the hands of the public. In general, the structure of the Sunday paper consisted of a few pages with brief articles on topics and personalities, followed by the main report on the front page, then some articles with useful information and a section of light texts to conclude.
Later, in 1896, the New York Times Magazine was published as a restoration strategy of the newspaper by its new owner Adolph Ochs. In particular, the new magazine opted for the publication of photographs, which produced an important visual evolution both in the newspaper and in the world of newspapers that until now did not include photographs. The publication of the first photos consisted of 16 pages of photographs showing the diamond jubilee of Queen Victoria of England, certainly revolutionized the publication in a medium whose readers were accustomed to chronicles that correspondents telegraphed from London.
The philosophy that Adolph Ochs imprinted on the NYT Magazine was based on the adoption of the image as a common language that was understood independently of race, class or creed. A philosophy that influenced the visual conception of the supplements and made photography one of the main hallmarks of this editorial product. On the other hand, Ochs also included in the supplement a section of comic strips and social gossip, which shaped the model of the supplement that is known today. Finally, one more aspect to highlight that the pages of the NYT Magazine contributed by the hand of journalist Lester Merkel, was to make the supplement a forum of ideas on which the entire United States would comment for the rest of the week. Thus, writers and scientists of the importance of Leon Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, Gertrude Stein, Tennessee Williams and Albert Einstein, as well as a large number of presidents wrote in this section of the Sunday magazine.
Newspapers and Magazines in Colombia
The history of the printing press in Colombia began in the 18th century when the Jesuits required from the colonial government permission to bring in 1741 the first press to Nueva Granada in which was published at the beginning some novenas and separated religious sheets. In 1769 arrived in Cartagena the Spaniard printer José de Rioja who brought his own press and worked in the city for a short period. Then he sold the press in 1773 to the Spaniard Antonio Espinosa de los Monteros who established himself in the city, making of Cartagena the cradle of printing in Colombia before Santafe and Popayan.
Nevertheless, in 1777 Antonio Espinosa de los Monteros moved out to Bogotá to run the Royal Printing founded the same year by the viceroy Antonio Flórez. The first works of the Royal Printing appeared in 1778 with some calendars, administrative policies, posters, and information about the control of epidemics, all of them financed by the Spanish State. It also published the first printed news Aviso del Terremoto, which appeared in 1785 informing the people about the telluric movement in Santa Fe that occurred the 12th July of that year.
Two newspapers were born in the Royal Printing, inaugurating thus the illustrated press in New Granada: in 1785 appeared La Gaceta de Santafe, which aimed to show the important happenings in the New Kingdom of Granada but it only reached three issues. The first one of 31st August talked about the earthquake of 12th July, the second one of which we do not have registers and the third and last one published in 31st October 1785 informing about the foundation of the “Colegio de la Enseñanza de Nuestra Señora del Pilar” and about an epidemic of measles.
Later in 1791, Manuel del Socorro Rodríguez founded and edited the Papel Periódico de la ciudad de Santafé de Bogotá, printed until 1792 in the Royal Printing and since 1793 in the Antionio Nariño´s Imprenta Patriótica. The imprint model of the newspaper was a small gathering in quarto. The main purpose of the articles of the Papel Periódico was mediating between the economical and industrial progress and the Catholic and monarchical model rather than disseminating revolutionary ideas. The guiding subjects of the newspaper were political philosophy and economy, all of them considered by del Socorro as the principles that the New Granada society should follow in order to establish civil harmony. The Papel Periódico printed its last publication in 1797 when it numbered 265 issues, and closed due to economic motivations.
As mentioned, the political and military leader Antonio Nariño founded in 1793 the Imprenta Patriótica after acquiring a press. As we know, he got the wooden drawers in 1791 in Spain and hired the employers in 1793 when he had the composing frame, the tables and the press ready. By then, he was a trader of new and secondhand books and had in his mind the dissemination of the philosophical and illustrated ideas of the time. In the press, he worked with Diego Espinosa de los Monteros (Antonio’s stepson) as pressman, Pedro José de Vergara as auxiliary, Antonio Murcia in charge of the screw press, and Diego Rodríguez and Manuel María Torres as workers. There, Nariño published clandestinely his translation of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the citizen, which is why he was incarcerated and his printing office was seized and taken to the Royal library in 1794.
After it was seized, Nicolás Calvo bought the “Imprenta Patriótica” keeping the name and carrying on with the printing of works. One of them was the newspaper Correo Curioso, Erudito, económico y Mercantil (1801), which reached 46 issues of 4 pages in octavo format, was backed by the personal fortune of Jorge Tadeo Lozano. This newspaper as well as the previous were official with a controlled censorship by the Spanish government. The information given by the Correo Curioso was meanly laws, papal papers, and government ordinances, in other words, the political legislations of the Viceroyalty of New Granada.
For its part, the Royal Printing kept working with the leading of Antonio Espinosa de los Monteros until his dead in 1804, when his son Bruno Espinosa inherited the charge and played a special role during the independence of the New Granada until 1811. Several newspapers were published during this period with a strong revolutionary accent, although with the monarchical censorship along with serious infrastructure problems made their distribution harder. Francisco José de Caldas and Joaquín Camacho wrote in the third issue of El Diario Político that due the limited letters was necessary to disarm and compose repeatedly and the health of the pressman could not resist such fatigue, that is why the newspaper would be limited to two issues weekly.
In 1808, the abdication of Ferdinand VII generated a high demand for information and a high production of writings explaining and interpreting the events in Europe. The increase in the press production was strengthened by the Cortes of Cádiz’ ordinance of 1810 about the free of writing, printing and publishing political ideas, which allowed encourage the emancipation of Spain . By this time, was published the Semanario del Nuevo Reino de Granada (1808-1809), directed by the scientist Francisco José de Caldas. It was one of the first scientific publications in Latin America dealing with subjects such as demography, literature, industry, agriculture and geography. In Caldas mind was clear that by knowing scientifically the territory it was possible to appropriate it.
By then, the city of Cartagena got a Printing Office after it was requested since 1800 to the treasurer of the Royal Consulate of Commerce directed by Manuel de Pombo. The Viceroy Amar y Borbón rejected the idea in 1806 and also King Charles IV in 1808, because they considered that a city surrounded of colonies and foreign possessions was in risk of being flooded with dangerous writings. It was after the abdication of Ferdinand VII when the Printing of the Royal Consulate began to work without the official permission of the government. The first work published was the Noticias Públicas de Cartagena de Indias (1808-1812).
In 1810, During the War of Independence of the New Granada the press became a political action tool, at the beginning used to inform about the movements of the libertarian armies and then used as ideological propaganda. In such a way, appeared in August 1810 the Diario politico de Santafé (1810-1811), directed by Joaquín Camacho, José María Gutiérrez and Francisco José de Caldas. Further on, after the declaration of Independence of the New Granada was published La Constitución Feliz (1810) with the objective of disseminating the libertarian ideas. In its first issue entitled “Relación sumaria instructiva de las novedades ocurridas” (“List of instructive summary of novelties”), was told the happenings of July 20 in Santafé.
Beginning in 1810, there was an exponential growth in the number of newspapers published weekly and fortnightly in the New Granada. As early as reached the independence the new republic was divided in juntas, which meant that some cities declared themselves independent producing in such a way the confrontation between federalist and centralist . This clash brought an enormous amount of publications arguing for and against the centralization of the power in the new nation. Among them, the most remarkable was the centralist La Bagatela (1811-1812), founded by Antonio Nariño, which allowed him to overthrow the first Junta of government and come to power. On the other hand, the federalist newspaper from Cartagena Argos Americano (1810-1812) directed by Manuel Rodríguez and José Fernández fought Nariño’s ideas against the Junta and defended the position of the president Jorge Tadeo Lozano.
In 1816 arrived to New Granada the monarchical troops leaded by Pablo Morillo, who was in charge of reestablish the total control over the newborn republic. This control was accompanied of the total ban on the freedom of printing and furthermore printing became the tool to reeducate the population of the New Granada in terms of royal loyalty, since the public opinion associated the monarchy with obscurantism and tyranny. The main publications of the reconquest were the Boletín del Exército Expedicionario (1815-1816) and the Gazeta de Santafé (1816-1817) in which the republicans were shown as criminals without popular support.
The reconquest had left several deaths of soldiers, politicians and civilians associated to the patriotic cause, that is why in 1819 Simón Bolívar along with Francisco de Paula Santander began the campaign to liberate the territory. After the war, Bolívar’s troops coming from Venezuela and Santander’s coming from New Granada met in Cucuta, the middle point between Caracas and Bogotá. There were inaugurated in 1821 the sessions of the Constitutional Congress, where would be unified officially New Granada and Venezuela based on the Fundamental Law of the Republic of Colombia in the Congress of Angostura, in which was proclaimed the Gran Colombia.
In order to print and disseminate the laws of the new Republic was created the Gaceta de Colombia (1821-1831), which would become the official communication body of the government located in Cucuta. Nevertheless, it would be necessary to install a printing office in this city. By order of the vice-president Santander, the pressman Bruno Espinosa brought his press to Cucuta with all the workers and on 6 September published the first issue with the Fundamental Law of the Republic of Colombia. The press was brought back to Santafé de Bogotá and after being led by several editors, the official communication body was named Gaceta de la Nueva Granada (1832-1847), then Gaceta Oficial (1848-1861), and finally in 1864 it became the Diario Oficial de Colombia.
The mid-19th century, the press went through a rapid growth due to the birth of the two official parties of Colombia: Liberal (1848) and Conservative (1849). The press was the more dynamic part in the ideological and political structure and was understood as the more efficient way to influence public opinion. In the midst of the political agitation between liberal and conservatives, the newspaper was the way to consolidate political and cultural hegemonies and unify interests. At the same time, the freedom of press reestablished in 1821 turned into a form of government rather than an enemy to attack, but in order to print as many publications as possible it was necessary to acquire a very large press since the official one was badly deteriorated.
Instead of acquiring a press the Government decided to contract private individuals to print the next official newspaper. Manuel Ancízar, who was the undersecretary of the External Relations, persuaded the Government to be supported in the acquisition of a press in the United States and after be formalized the contract he quit the job and got engaged in the stablishment of the printing office. In 1848, Ancízar founded the Printing Office and the newspaper both named El Neogranadino. The workshop aimed to print and distribute printed cultural goods, which had the main purpose of founding a unified national awareness among New Granada’s elite and the rest of the population. However, the press also had a commercial function working with products that fluctuated between engravings, novels, lithographs, musical scores besides public ordinances, commercial and economical information and local gossips.
El Neogranadino is considered as the first modern newspaper in Colombia, since it was a business enterprise rather than an organ exclusively at the service of the State, even though with strong links with the government. Manuel Ancízar played the role of supervisor highlighting the distinction between the sources of the speech and the speech of the editor. Besides, El Neogranadino established an editorial project along a technological infrastructure that allowed it to manage a typographical diversity and incorporate illustrations in order to create a new public of readers and press buyers, in other words, establish the industrial development of the press.
El Neogranadino was also the first in have a structure divided in sections and supplements. It was divided in three parts: “inner section”, “outer section” and “domestic section”. The inner section contented all the information related with the Capital of the Republic: hygiene, statistical information, financial reports, etc. In the outer section, one found news from Europe and the rest of America, some extracts of the foreign newspapers, translations made by the director, and Ancízar’s correspondence with people from Venezuela, the United States, and Cuba. Finally, in the domestic section were published commercial adds, among others there was disclosed the latest publications of the Printing Office.
Ancízar also established the subscription structure and the marketing strategy for the distribution of the newspaper. He was in charge of the prior promotion of the editorial products in order to avoid any risk of low sales. Ancízar is identified as enlightened printer-publisher but also as the liberal entrepreneur who sought the neutrality of the press in regards with the government in order to avoid local disputes and reach the free development of the newspaper.
In short, the beginning of the press in Colombia is closely linked to politics, to such an extent that the power and political recognition of characters such as Manuel Murillo Toro, Santiago Pérez, Miguel Antonio Caro, Rafael Núñez, was largely due to their participation in newspapers, through journalistic, humanist or grammatical articles. Likewise, 20th century presidents such as Carlos E. Restrepo, Marco Fidel Suárez and José Vicente Concha, Enrique Olaya Herrera, Eduardo Santos, Laureano Gómez and Belisario Betancur managed to gain experience as journalists, booksellers, librarians and magazine editors before taking office as the country’s leaders.
The antecedents of cultural magazines in Colombia date back to 1836 when La Estrella Nacional saw the light of day under the initiative of Juan Francisco Ortiz, being the first completely literary publication in the country. In addition, at that time, different newspapers also published writers and novels through literary weeklies such as Manuel Ancízar’s Neogranadino, created in 1848, El Porvenir in 1859 and La América in 1873, both by José María Quijano Otero. However, it was in the period between 1880 and 1910 that there was a great expansion of these publishing products.
The cultural magazines responded to the publishers’ need to create an audience, something which at the time was restricted to the very small group of those who could read and write and who had had secondary and university education. In addition to all this, there was a shortage of cultural institutions for the dissemination of humanities and the arts. Meanwhile, the local publishing business was still in its infancy, since, in addition to the few bookshops that existed, national authors had few means of disseminating their works, and often the costs of publication were to their own economic detriment.
In this context of an incipient publishing industry, newspapers were responsible for the dissemination of culture, particularly in the form of the folletín. They published all kinds of literary material, including classic and contemporary works by foreign and Colombian authors, on the condition that they were published in instalments, which allowed them to have a captive audience and consequently guaranteed sales. This publishing phenomenon emerged in Colombia at the end of the 19th century and managed to have a privileged space in the « serious » and « popular » press until the middle of the 20th century.
The editors of the country’s newspapers realised that if they wanted to convey the literary movements and works of the time, they had to provide their readers with entertaining and varied content that would encourage reading. Following this line, the most renowned writers of the time were published in the Papel periódico Ilustrado, and El Telegrama created the first literary Sunday edition in July 1887. Later, on May 24, 1903 El Nuevo Tiempo would become the first Colombian newspaper to publish a literary supplement, namely El Nuevo Tiempo Literario. The supplement featured the output of such renowned writers as Rafael Pombo, Miguel Antonio Caro and José Manuel Marroquín.
At the beginning of the 20th century, in 1901 César Saavedra and Arturo Manrique published the newspaper Esfinge, which announced its literary character in its aim of recording Colombia’s literary production. It published works such as Diana Cazadora, written by Clímaco Soto Borda, as well as various stories, poems, chronicles and news from abroad. Later, in 1902, the newspaper Rigoletto was founded in Barranquilla, directed by Julio H. Palacio and Eduardo Ortega in the company of various intellectuals. In 1913 Enrique and Miguel Rash Isla founded Mercurio with the aim of publishing new writers. In 1914, the conservative newspaper La Nación, owned by Miguel Moreno Alba and Pedro Pastor Consuegra, began to publish a literary supplement headed by the man of letters Clemente Manuel Zabala. In 1928, Juan B Fernández and Gabriel Martínez Aparicio founded La Prensa, with the participation of Porfirio Barba Jacob, among other important writers.
On the other hand, newspapers such as El Gráfico, La Gaceta Republicana and Cromos opened a space for writers of different literary generations to publish their pages, such as the Centenary Generation and the New Generation. This space consisted of the writing of literary gatherings, the production of verses and the writing of various journalistic genres. Some of the prominent names who appeared in these pages were Julio Flórez, Baldomero Sanín Cano, Eduardo Castillo, José Eustasio Rivera, among others.
In 1922, the newspaper El Sol was published, directed by Luis Tejada and José Mar, where political criticism alternated with light chronicles, as well as some short stories. Later, in 1935, Diario Nacional began to publish its supplement Márgenes, directed by Darío Achury Valenzuela and featuring publications by Eduardo Zalamea Borda, León de Greiff, Rafael Maya and Adel López Gómez. Later, after the events of 9 April 1948 known as the Bogotazo, the writer Jorge Zalamea started the fortnightly publication Crítica, whose literature section featured translations of T.S. Eliot, Albert Camus’ Plague, the poetry of Saint-John Perse and the Italian literature of the time.
During the 1940s, important supplements were published, directed by some of the most outstanding intellectuals of the time. One of these was the supplement Generación, published in El Colombiano and directed by Otto Morales Benítez, with the participation of figures such as Belisario Betancur, Eddy Torres and Jorge Robledo. In 1946, the literary supplement Nuestro Tiempo was also published by the liberal newspaper directed by the former president Alberto Lleras Camargo and edited by Lucio Duzán, Guillermo Payán Archer and Fernando Charry Lara. The importance of this supplement lay in its various translations of the best journalism from the United States, as well as translations of the works of André Gide and John Steinbeck.
On the other hand, the literary supplement of the conservative newspaper El Siglo, which until 1945 was directed by Guillermo Camacho Montoya, together with Belisario Betancur and Bernardo Ramírez, managed to introduce international writers such as Jorge Luis Borges. Likewise, Gilberto Alzate Avendaño’s conservative newspaper El Diario de Colombia featured writers such as Héctor Rojas Herazo in its supplement La Gaceta Literaria.
Later, at the end of the 1950s, the renowned nadaista poet Gonzalo Arango founded Esquirla in Cali, a literary supplement of the newspaper El Crisol, from which the writings of the recently founded nadaista movement were disseminated. In 1975, El Pueblo published the cultural magazine Estravagario, directed by Fernando Garavito and María Mercedes Carranza. This publication was characterised by its circulation of Latin American counterculture trends, hence its attempt not to be confused with a literary supplement. Eduardo Umaña Luna, Arturo Alape, Álvaro Medina, Pedro Claver Téllez, Isaías Peña Gutiérrez, Jaime Posada and Umberto Valverde, writers who, in their own way, presented the new literary journalism accompanied by leftist ideas, participated in its pages.
Between 1979 and 1980, the supplements El Mundo Semanal of the daily El Mundo and El Intermedio of the daily El Caribe respectively saw the light of day. The former, directed by Ana María Cano and Adriana Mejía, managed to approach cultural issues by making use of different journalistic genres and at the same time gave relevance to local and national literary production. For its part, El Intermedio, under the direction of Alfonso Fuenmayor, Ramón Illán Bacca and Germán Vargas, directed its interests towards the dissemination of trends in world literature.
The supplements of El Espectador and El Tiempo deserve special mention, as they managed to disseminate in their pages the best national literary and artistic production throughout the 20th century. It should be added that in 1931 the employees of both newspapers joined together to found the Union of Press Employees in Bogota, which would later become the Federation of Press Workers of Bogota and which invited all Bogota newspaper workers to join and which by the end of that year had 200 members. The main objective of this Federation was to guarantee the working conditions of the workers, as well as to establish the good management of relations between employees and employers. In a way, this organization paved the way for the professionalization of journalism in Colombia that had been developing during the first decades of the twentieth century.
El Espectador, founded by Fidel Cano Gutiérrez in 1887, had already published a literature page in 1891, in which writings by Jorge Asunción Silva, Rubén Darío and Víctor Hugo were printed. However, it was in 1915 that this newspaper published the first Suplemento of the country, La Semana, which was devoted to poetry and the cultural and social life of Medellín. The publication was illustrated by Ricardo Rendón, with photographs by Daniel A. Mesa and drawings by Vieco.
The works of writers such as Francisco de Paula Rendón, Carlo E. Restrepo, Tomás Márquez, Baldomero Sanín Cano, Antonio J. Cano, Tomás Carrasquilla, Efe Gómez and Alfonso Castro were published in the pages of La Semana. The illustrated magazine achieved such recognition in Antioquia that in 1916 it began to be sold in Bogotá, and later in 1924 it would begin publishing in the same city El Espectador Dominical, directed by the poet Porfirio Barba Jacob, Lino Gil Jaramillo and Francisco Umaña Bernal.
In 1948 the masthead of the supplement was renamed Fin de Semana and in 1950 it became the Magazín Dominical. In general terms, this supplement followed the editorial lines of American magazines, i.e., engaging reporting, literature, political commentary and a comic strip section. This was because its editor Guillermo Cano was aware of the American magazines and sought to adapt their structure to his publication, which also had a 16-page section on sports and society.
As for the literature section, El Magazín managed to publish at least six stories in each issue, including texts by foreign authors translated for the first time for this supplement. The section of the supplement called « Maestro del cuento » (Master of the short story) stood out, which was commented by Eduardo Zalamea Borda and in which appeared in 1947 the short story « La Tercera Resignación » (The Third Resignation) by Gabriel García Márquez, who at the time was not yet recognised. This story was the first by García Márquez to be published in El Espectador, in eight columns and illustrated by Grau. Likewise, Manuel Mejía Vallejo published from Guatemala the report on Porfirio Barba Jacob « El hombre que parecía un Fantasma » published in several issues, as well as book reviews by Fernando Soto Aparicio, Nicolás Suescún, Antonio Panesso Robledo and Héctor Ocampo.
The recognition and popularity achieved by the Sunday magazine led to the sale of around 68,000 copies of one of its issues, a record number in Colombia. However, such a peak was overshadowed in 1953 after a traffic accident in which Álvaro Pachón de la Torre, director of the supplement, and his collaborators Gustavo Wills Ricaurte and Álvaro Umaña Forero, in charge of the cultural section, died. Pachón de la Torre would have gained recognition for his extensive knowledge of foreign radio reports and for his translations of texts from Reader’s Digest, Paris Match and Woman.
Around 1955, El Magazín became a magazine of chronicles and reports on the social reality of the country. Through Colombian writers who were in European exile, curiosity about what was happening in the country was heightened, namely Gabriel García Márquez, Eduardo Caballero Calderón, Uriel Ospina, Eduardo Mendoza Varela, Elisa Mujica and Ramiro de la Espriella. In the 1980s, El Magazín focused on offering its readers cultural journalism and opened the way to multiculturalism, thus moving away from the country’s usual centralism. Finally, this publication would disappear at the end of the century.
 Douglas, G. (1999).The Golden Age of the Newspapers, Greenwood press., pp. 227-30
 Keeble, R. (2005). Print Journalism. A critical edition. Abingdon: Routledge.
 Greco, M. (2016). “Los Suplementos Culturales Como Objeto De Estudio: El Caso De La Nación (1929-1931)”. Revista de Literaturas Modernas 46(2). 139-173. P.142
 Rodríguez, M. (2016). El gran reportaje en los suplementos dominicales de los diarios de información general. Doctoral dissertation. Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid. P. 89-97.
 Shpepard, R. (1996). The Paper’s Papers. A Reporter’s Journey Through The Archives of The New York Times, Times Books. Random House. 129-131
 Jaramillo de Zuleta, P. (2004). La producción de los rosaristas, 1700-1799: catálogo bibliográfico, Volumen 1. Bogotá: Editorial Universidad del Rosario. P. 9
 Rubio, A. (2018). “La edición de la Gaceta en Colombia, 1821-1831. La ley impresa en la formación de un nuevo estado”. Méndez, D., Colorado, P., SandovaL, J., & Cupa, M. (Eds.). Lectores, editores y cultura impresa en Colombia: Siglos XVI-XXI. Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano.
 Padilla, Iván (Ed.). 2012. Sociedad y cultura en la obra de Manuel del Socorro Rodríguez de la Victoria. Nueva Granada 1789-1819. Colección Semilleros n.° 2. Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
 Barredo, D. (2017). “Efectos de la imprenta en La Reconquista de Nueva Granada: ka republicancización de la opinión pública y la racionalización de la monarquía”, en Historia y comunicación social 22.2, 415-424. P. 416
 Ibid. 417.
 Jaramillo de Zuleta, P. (2004). P. 9.
 Barredo, D. (2017). P. 417.
 Castaño, P; Nieto, M.; D. Ojeda. (2005). Política, ciencia y geografía en el Semanario del Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Nómadas (22) 114-125. P. 116
 Acevedo, R. (2017). Las letras de la Provincia en la República. Educación, escuelas y libros de la patria en las provincias de la Costa Atlántica Colombiana, 1821-1886. Bogotá: Universidad de los Andes. P. 301.
 Barredo, D. (2017). P. 421.
 Rubio, A. (2018). “La edición de la Gaceta en Colombia, 1821-1831. La ley impresa en la formación de un nuevo estado”. Méndez, D., Colorado, P., SandovaL, J., & Cupa, M. (Eds.). Lectores, editores y cultura impresa en Colombia: Siglos XVI-XXI. Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano.
 González, J. (2004). Repensar el periodismo. Transformaciones y emergencia del periodismo actual. Cali: Universidad del Valle. P. 90
 Ibid. p. 42
 Ibid. p. 92
 Ibid. p. 94
 Ibid. p. 93.
 It should be made clear that the concept of literature during the 19th century included subjects such as mathematics, morals, music, linguistics, etc. While literary compositions as they are understood today were poetry, essays, theatrical commentaries and descriptive articles on customs. Rodríguez Arenas, F. (1996) “La estrella nacional (1836): Comienzos de la novela decimonónica en Colombia”. Cuadernos de literatura. 7-16. p. 9.
 On this point, attention should be drawn to the high levels of illiteracy, which until the beginning of the 20th century reached 66% of the adult population, one of the highest in Latin America. The expansion of secondary and university education was a phenomenon that only took place in Colombia in the second half of the 20th century. Uribe, J. (2006). « Evolución de la educación en Colombia durante el siglo xx ». Revista del Banco de la República, 79(940). p. 3.
 El Telegrama: diario de la mañana was published in Bogotá between 1886 and 1904. This newspaper was considered one of the first private publications that managed to maintain a regular edition, innovate in the use of the telegraph and add a literary supplement to its edition. One of its main features was the inclusion of news from abroad, due to the efficient use of cables between Europe and America. (El Telegrama: diario de la mañana, (1886-1904). Bogotá: Imprenta de Borda, Imprenta El Telegrama, Imprenta de Vapor accessed at https://babel.banrepcultural.org/digital/collection/p17054coll26/id/13273/ )
 See more at https://hemerotecabpp.wordpress.com/2013/10/30/el-nuevo-tiempo-literario/.
 Vallejo, M. (2006). A Plomo Herido. Una crónica del periodismo en Colombia (1890-1980). Bogotá: Editorial Planeta Colombia. P. 127-130
 Ibid. 122-127
 Despite the liberal line of the supplement, articles of a moralistic nature were also published, such as the one by Osorio Lizarazo in which the work of writer Jean Paul Sartre was branded as pornographic in the style of the Marquis de Sade. (Osorio Lizarazo, « la Pornografía de Sartre », June 20, 1948).
 Melo, J. (2008). “Las revistas literarias en Colombia e Hispanoamérica: una aproximación a su historia”. Conferencia dictada en el Segundo Seminario de Edición Profesional para Revistas y Publicaciones Seriadas. Bogotá, octubre 31 de 2008.
 This professionalization involved the foundation of work organizations, the delimitation of tasks and separation from other professions such as law, politics, or teachers; likewise, it implied the creation of the material conditions to make the profession of journalist a full-time job. Aponte, O. (2019). “The Making of a Modern Newspaper: El Tiempo in Colombia, 1911-1940”. Palabra Clave, 22(4). https://doi.org/10.5294/pacla.2019.22.4.4
 Vallejo, M. (2006). P. 123
 Gilard, J. (1996). “Magazin Dominical de El Espectador (Bogota), 1978-1989: responsabilidad ante la historia”. América. Cahiers du CRICCAL. 16. 199-212.